Oscar Rey Brea: the man who discovered the UFOs” by Manuel Carballal.

Galán Vázquez
29 min readNov 4, 2022
Cover of book
Back cover of the book

1943. Leningrad Front. Seven Spanish soldiers from the Blue Division spot a flying disk in the midst of battle. The divisional Óscar Rey Brea believes that it is some secret Nazi weapon…
1945. His parents see two identical flying discs in A Coruña. Rey Brea assumes that they cannot be German weapons and begins, two years before the rest of the world, the scientific study of the Flying Saucers…
Official of the Air Ministry at the Meteorological Center of Galicia, Óscar Rey Brea, was nicknamed the wise Galician by the Spanish ufological community from 1961, which made him their main scientific consultant.
Passionate researcher in physics, archeology, astronomy, etc., he invented scientific and field ufology. He received astronomical prizes, discovered Celtic hill forts, developed new physical theories… But in 1973, after being the first to solve one of the most famous UFO hoaxes in the world, he was “executed” by his former colleagues, falling into oblivion
50 years later, Carballal recovers his writings, correspondence and legacy in libraries, newspaper archives and historical archives. And after interviewing family, friends and acquaintances, he intends to recover his memory on the date of his centenary: January 6, 2023.

By way of a particular introduction and how to recommend a forthcoming book, initially in Spanish.

For those of us who have been dedicated to Ufological research for years, we have no doubt that Oscar Rey Brea was the world pioneer in this research discipline.

Several months of tireless research, hundreds of articles reviewed and studied, an exhaustive investigation in archives, libraries and newspaper archives, Manuel Carballal presents us with a work of great informative quality, about the person of one of the most effective investigators of the UFO phenomenon.

“EL GALLEGO SABIO” Oscar Rey Brea: the man who discovered UFOs.

This is the content index of Manuel Carballal book.



Letter to the reader of this book

Dear reader:

Most likely, you do not have the slightest idea who Don Óscar Rey Brea was and why it is worth someone taking the trouble to write his biography. It’s natural. Same thing happened to me…
Two compelling reasons led to his life and his work being diluted by historical oblivion:
1st Óscar Rey Brea suffered from a pathological allergy to leading roles. As a World War II veteran — decorated for his near kamikaze valor as a liaison motorist on the Russian front — he never participated in the associations, tributes or celebrations of the Blue Division volunteers who, like him, enlisted to fight communism in 1942. Years later, he made the same effort to flee from all protagonism in the ufological community. Dodging the cameras in the first meetings of researchers, and asking his colleagues for discretion with his identity, and above all with his profession. Since, as an official of the Meteorological Center of Galicia, he was under the military jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Air (today the Air Force). In fact in 1950! Óscar Rey Brea published his first articles in the Galician press anonymously, or hidden under the pseudonym Óscar Rebre, for fear of possible reprisals by the Air Ministry.

2º In all the books on the history of Spanish ufology, 1973 is indicated as the date of death of Óscar Rey Brea. But it is not true. That is the date on which he was publicly “defenestrated” by the then most influential popularizers of the country’s ufology, for having unmasked before anyone else, in 1972, the biggest fraud in world UFO history. Rey Brea survived, forcibly removed from the research community, for four more years. But, I imagine that traumatized by the reaction of those who he had considered friends for more than a decade, he did not go back to meetings or meetings of researchers and, with three very specific exceptions, he did not resume correspondence, nor did he write anything related to UFOs until his death.
But, despite all this, today I am in a position to demonstrate that Don Óscar Rey Brea was the man who discovered the UFO phenomenon and the inventor of ufology. Perhaps not only in Spain. Maybe in the world. I will provide arguments for it.
Rey Brea was not only the first researcher to purge the casuistry by filtering explainable cases such as astronomical, meteorological, aeronautical or fraud phenomena, inventing what is now called scientific ufology. In addition, he did research on the ground; surveying witnesses, looking for physical evidence, etc. So he also invented what is now called field ufology.
But not only that. He was also the first researcher of the phenomenon in the world, who dared to develop an explanatory theory for the UFO enigma, which claimed to be predictive… and it was. At least for a few years.
And the most surprising thing about his unknown biography is that, for decades, he combined his passion for what were then called Flying Saucers, later UFOs and today UAPs or FANIs, with scientific research.

Rey Brea is the author of experiments, essays and theories on astronomy, meteorology or physics, which are now kept in the Spanish Academy of Sciences, or which were awarded by entities such as the Aster Astronomical Association.

Of him, people with more knowledge than me said:

“Manuel Osuna and Óscar Rey Brea, synonymous with honesty. Although both defended the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis…”.
José Ruesga Montiel

“The first scientific hypothesis that has been developed on the UFO phenomenon, and perhaps the only one, has been that of Óscar Rey Brea on the Martian cycles.”
Félix Ares de Blas

“The great researcher Óscar Rey Brea, who provided the data to the Jesuit, has been one of the coldest and most honest men in the investigation of UFO phenomena. His statements are enough to sentence the case”.
Juan José Benítez

“He was also one of the first proponents of UFO propulsion systems and of the need to follow a methodology in the preparation of casuistry censuses that would purge them of natural phenomena and other banal facts.”
Matías Morey

“One of the first voices to raise doubts about the case (UMMO) was the respected Óscar Rey Brea, considered the father of Spanish ufology.”
Débora Goldstern

“Perhaps because of the scientific erudition that Rey Brea displayed in his public and private writings, Antonio Ribera called him “the wise Galician…”.
Ignacio Cabria

“Óscar Rey Brea, considered the first Spanish ufologist and one of the pioneers in the world, recorded a sighting from Coruña two years before the phenomenon of flying saucers became popular in the United States…”.
Santiago Romero

“Oscar Rey Brea was one of the few ufologists who realized (the fraud UMMO)”
José Luis Jordán Peña

Ribera’s text is despicable (…). The mistreatment of Rey Brea in that text is a fierce injustice (…) I have appreciated Ribera personally, but that was unforgivable”, little can be added.
Vicente Juan Ballester Olmos Manuel Craballal

The story of Óscar Rey Bea is not only the biography of the pioneer in a subject that today excites millions of fans around the world; he is the common thread on a journey back in time to the origins of the UFO phenomenon. Even up to four years before his birth. And it allows us to deconstruct and restart, without all the additives, preservatives and artificial colorings, which have been added to the original phenomenon over the years, a critical review of said phenomenon, when it had not yet been intoxicated by commercial, political interests. or military.
On January 6, 2023, the centenary of his birth is celebrated. I cannot think of a more opportune moment to rescue from oblivion the life and work of the wise Galician…
Manuel Craballal

“If I have been investigating the problem since 1945, it is not even out of a desire for notoriety, I greatly dislike publicity, that is why I only come to the fore on very few occasions; much less to find a modus vivendi. The business costs me money. Yes I did it and I do it to satisfy my own curiosity. And it would be absurd for me to try to deceive myself”
“I believe that it is everyone’s obligation to seek the truth, whatever it may be and, consequently, the discussion of our respective points of view, which inevitably everyone has, is equally obligatory. Only one can be the truth”
“Eridani being host to the Ummite warren”
“In particular, I am not guided by any interest in whether or not UFOs exist, I am only moved by curiosity, and that is why I am outside of any positive or negative influence”
“Come on, friend Ballester, let’s be serious if we want to be taken in the same way!”
“One day in 1943, full of that petulant logic that emerges in our brains when we are faced with an unknown, I tried to find a form and name for the vision that seven boys had, ranging from a medical student to a plumber, all combat soldiers at the gates of Leningrad. His reply was more reasonable than my examples: If I thought they were idiots…”
“This is fixed by a good shot with a parabellum, which I think no ummite will resist…”
“Possibly my news (about Flying Saucers) are not abundant, but you have to realize that here I am more alone than a castaway…

Doña Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda, better known as Santa Teresa de Jesús, the fascinating mystic from Salamanca of the 16th century, affirmed that “God writes straight with crooked lines”.
Don Torcuato Luca de Tena, founder of the ABC, universalized the Spanish proverb with his brilliant novel “The crooked lines of God” in 1979. I did not have the fortune to meet Santa Teresa, but due to a host of coincidences, I did have the fortune to meet don Torcuato Luca de Tena, knowing through him the first information about one of the most chilling cases of esoteric criminality that I have had the opportunity to investigate on the ground.

And due to a series of equally extraordinary coincidences, coincidences or synchronicities, which you will soon verify, you can now have these pages, with straight lines, in your hands.
I don’t know what the percentage of mathematical probabilities is that on that morning in 1987, exactly ten years after his death, I decided to go to the Provincial Meteorological Observatory of A Coruña. Nor that, of all the radiosondists who worked there, a certain Carlos was the one designated to assist me. Nor that he encouraged me to share with the radiosondist the true interest of my visit to the observatory. But that’s how it happened.

As I have already explained above, I wanted to find out to what extent weather sounding balloons could generate false UFO sightings. Some extraordinary cases, such as that of that old farmer from the Pontevedra coast who saw a “mill wheel come down from the sky from which men dressed in white descended” and “a radio hung from a rag, which she handed over to the Civil Guard” , acquired another dimension thanks to this initiative.

I visited the meteorological observatory on several occasions, I took note of the characteristics, ascensional speed, maximum diameter, luminosity, etc. And I even launched several of those sounding balloons, both during the morning and evening radiosondes. And I wrote a report that was published, that same year, in Karma 7 magazine.

Close encounter at the Meteorological Observatory of A Coruña

But all that is now irrelevant. The really extraordinary thing is that, during one of those launches, and while the weather balloon was rising towards the clouds, dilating due to the pressure change and increasing its diameter before exploding and dropping the radiosonde “hanging on a rag” (the parachute) It occurred to me to ask the radio sondista: “Don Carlos, and do you really believe that these balloons, which disappear so quickly from sight, could be mistaken for a UFO?”

For a few endless seconds Carlos stared at me without saying a word. Now, getting to know him better, I suppose he was assessing whether I was another one of the “vultures” (sic.) “fluttering about trying to get their claws on the family archive”, or if my comment had been innocent and spontaneous.
-Why do you ask me that?

Not for nothing. I am very interested in the subject. And since everyone now says that UFOs are trial balloons… that’s why I ask.
-But do you know who I am?
I give my word of honor that, at the time, I had no idea who he was. Neither who was Carlos, nor -what is most unforgivable- who was his father.
For a moment I assumed that the radiosondist was going to kick my ass, throwing me out of the observatory for mentioning the discredited Flying Saucers in a scientific institution like that, but the opposite happened…
“No, sorry,” I answered with that little voice of a beardless teenager, even more reedy than now.
-My father was Óscar Rey Brea. The wise Galician…

The man who discovered UFOs

Today I confess with blush, that at that time I did not know who the wise Galician was, alias that Antonio Ribera gave him. I discovered it, blessed coincidence, through the most authoritative person: his own son. But in my defense I will only argue that, since he was “killed” in 1973, the brilliant radiosondist, astronomer, archaeologist, photographer and discoverer of the UFO phenomenon, was suddenly erased from history and collective memory. These pages serve to vindicate his memory at the time of the centenary of his birth, coincidentally, on January 6, 2023.

Nor did he know anything about the Blue Division, the legion of Spanish volunteers, many of them Galician, who fought on the Russian front during World War II.
Some, like Óscar Rey, decorated with the Iron Cross and the Red Cross for Military Merit, for the incredible courage he showed in combat at the siege of Leningrad. Where, by the way, in 1943, he first came face to face with the Flying Saucers. Term that would not exist until four years later…

Coincidentally, in 1987 I was immersed in the first major long-term case that I faced as an investigator: the death of Javier Marcial during an exorcism, precisely on División Azul street in A Coruña. Where, for three years, I spent the nights of December 24 keeping guard waiting to catch Javier’s father, who was repainting on the road, at the point where his son’s body hit after falling from the 21st floor of the building that he had built himself, a sinister and macabre blood red cross… Until I caught him.

That case and that interview in the Blue Division street, how capricious is destiny, was decisive for me to start my kamikaze investigation into the Spanish satanic sects and lodges, personally getting to know the leaders of practically all the satanic organizations in the country.

Today, due to the Historical Memory Law, División Azul street has been renamed: Antón Vilar Ponte street. However, under the plaque that now identifies the street with the historic journalist and politician from Coruña, there is another plaque with the eloquent text: “Before the Blue Division street. Withdrawn for due restoration of historical memory”. Plaque that reflects the indignation of the divisionalists from A Coruña, also condemned to oblivion and historical forgetfulness.

Starting that morning in 1987, I had the opportunity to meet Carlos, one of the two sons of Óscar Rey Brea, on many occasions. And thanks to his trust, and to the file inherited from his father, today we can restart the history of the “number one problem of modern science” from the beginning. Or even from four years before.

Carlos Rey was kind enough to provide me with the correspondence his father had with researchers such as Antonio Ribera, Manuel Osuna, Vicente Juan Ballester Olmos, Pepe Ruesga, Ignacio Darnaude, J. J. Benítez, Alberto Adell, Pedro Redón, Father Requejo, Bernardino Sánchez Bueno , Carlos Vera, Daniel Guerrero, Benito Vidal, etc. And also priceless documents, such as the old diary in which he began to record the first cases of “flying discs” that he began to collect in 1945, two years before such a phenomenon existed. Or the old copy of “A Perfect Case”, full of notes and mathematical calculations, with which he solved a mystery, in 1972, that some continue to exploit today.

Nor will I evade their mistakes. That he committed, like all pioneers in any new discipline. It is attributed -although it has not been proven- to Albert Einstein the phrase: “”He who never made a mistake, never tried anything new”. And Óscar Rey tried something that no one had tried before: to decipher, through the scientific method, a phenomenon that did not even have a name yet. This is documented in his notes and reports.

Those documents, of incalculable value, were key to rebuilding his life. The rest, his work, I had to recompose it with pieces scattered around archives and newspaper archives in different cities of the country. And even from other countries, like Sweden, where the CEI archives ended up…

But all of that was just the tip of the iceberg. The life and work of the wise Galician had much more to offer, edges and surprises, which represent a perfect Ariadne thread to deconstruct and restart the history of the number one problem of modern science.

Already in the fourth century B.C. the famous Greek thinker Aristotle said that “forgetting is a sign of contempt and therefore causes anger.” And from my anger, after discovering the oblivion to which the wise Galician was condemned, my firm resolution was born to rescue his memory. And then it is when the investigation began…

Researchers Room of the Military Historical Archive of Avila.
Military file of Oscar Rey Brea.
Investigation of correspondence between Oscar Rey Brea and other Ufologists.
An interesting article written by Oscar Rey Brea

About the expansion of the Universe

The absurdity of the conclusion of an expanding Universe
— Cosmos 1963 -


In the magazine «Cosmos», corresponding to the month of September 1963, almost ten years ago, the signature of Mario Lleget and mine coincided. He wrote about Martians. I, on the ABSURDO OF THE CONCLUSION OF A EXPANDING UNIVERSE. And, exactly, he said:
Although Lemaitre’s primeval atom, . the most perfect imaginable structuring, be it the antithesis of the “chaos” that the revelations mention to us, the cosmological principle of a static Universe is repudiated, in terms of dimension, even when it evolves with respect to its stellar components, with a process parallel to the organic one, of birth, aging and individual death, a Universe in which local considerations can be placed throughout it, and an expanding Universe is chosen, which forces us to rush into the lucubration about the beginning and the end; about the limited or unlimited: about the eternal or perishable.
With the first we accept the barrier that has been imposed on our reason; we receive only what is given to us to understand. With the second, our vanity awakens wildly and we dare to impose our mathematical abstractions on the Creator.
The intermingling of logic and illogic that such concepts contain for our mind constitutes by itself the divine negative, but our equations allow us to rise above such Supreme Will.
This seems strong, but it is not without truth.
A plus B, squared and even
ted by a constant, that “constant>>
without which the account does not give, clears up the unknown: We lack the satisfaction of understanding it, but we will know it.

We will know that the Universe began
its expansion in immutable date in the
weather; we will know the exact amount in grams of its total mass; we will know its radius by knowing its current density y. With the law of «entropy», grouped to the aforementioned, it will be easy for us to know the day of his absolute death.
What changes can He make that escape our insight?
We will be able to do them, if we allow ourselves the luxury of making it eternal, with only the assumption of a “previous regression>> towards the pole of that curved Universe (?) in which the Lemaitrian atom was formed!
How much arrogance and unconsciousness loose!
Saint Augustine rightly said that God, before Earth and Heaven, must have created Hell for those who had the audacity to inquire into such lofty questions.
Of course, divine indulgence is great and, frequently, it points out our mistakes so that we can rectify them.
Through the mirror Hale, from Mount Palomar, showed us, not long ago, a new galaxy, there, towards the conglomerate of the constellation of the Hydra. And this galaxy located three billion light years away, and with a recession speed, according to Hubble’s law, of one hundred and fifty thousand kilometers per second! It completely topples our mathematical castle.
The paradox is well visible.”
Let us initially opt for the original Lemaitre atom, where the expansion rate in each of the conglomerates is constant.
Let us fix three galaxies: the A, to five hundred million light years; B, a billion, and C, the aforementioned. to three billion. The A, with a constant speed of twenty-five thousand kilometers…

The possibility that the “flying saucers” are extraterrestrial devices is insisted on

“…surprising that Aristote called a globe of fire a goat. Such was the form of the one that appeared as big as the Moon during Paulo Emilio’s war against Perseus.”
(Treatise of Philosophy of Lucio Anneo Seneca).

A little over a year ago, for greater accuracy, on December 11, 1954, I made a public prediction that, approximately, expressed in the following terms: “During the eight months that separate March 1955 from December of the same year, the men will not suffer suggestions mistaking wild ducks for “Flying Saucers.”
I only suffered a slight error in time. The last sight of such artifacts, officially known by the acronym “O.V.N.I.”, (unidentified flying object), a sight of course with an unmistakable non-meteoric identity, a plane engulfed in flames or experimental rockets in free fall, was obtained over Malaga on 21 April of last year.
Today, with Mars about a hundred and ninety million kilometers away, a distance that the Earth shortens by a daily average of more than a million, and taking into account the confusion caused in France by the strange object captured by the Orly airport radar screen, I remember that prediction, the second part of which was fulfilled on the scheduled date when a “Flying Saucer” was seen by some peasants near Milan on December 19; vision that follows with, one on January 15 near Pamplona, ​​by two girls; another on the 23rd of the same month in Osuna, Córdoba and Ecija ; that of the director of the Observatory. Montseny Meteorological, on February 8; and the most indisputable that people called “the ghost of Orly”. (Subsequently, the Press has spoken of a new “Saucer” on the African coast).
Today I want to insist that these appearances will increase progressively until September of the current year and will decrease in the same way for absent again for another eight months from June 1957.
I know that the foregoing will cause abundant ironic smiles in many, with scant modesty, they imitate the geocentrists who up to the last moment supported Ptolemy’s planetary system, without any scientific reason, only because recognizing its falsity meant evicting us men from the center of the Universe. And to them I want to indicate that my predictions -the one before and the one now- are not due to some strange reason. Neither acute forebodings, nor telepathic powers that bring fantastic entities to my brain. The conviction that I harbor that the “O.V.N.I.” they are extraterrestrials came to me after a study patient… (CONTINUED ON FIFTH PLANE)

Oscar Rey Brea said:

“If I have been investigating the problem since 1945, it is not even out of a desire for notoriety, I greatly dislike publicity, that is why I only come to the fore on very few occasions; much less to find a modus vivendi. The business costs me money. Yes I did it and I do it to satisfy my own curiosity. And it would be absurd for me to try to deceive myself”

“I believe that it is everyone’s obligation to seek the truth, whatever it may be and, consequently, the discussion of our respective points of view, which inevitably everyone has, is equally obligatory. Only one can be the truth”

“Eridani being host to the Ummite warren”
“In particular, I am not guided by any interest in whether or not UFOs exist, I am only moved by curiosity, and that is why I am outside of any positive or negative influence”
“Come on, friend Ballester, let’s be serious if we want to be taken in the same way!”

“One day in 1943, full of that petulant logic that emerges in our brains when we are faced with an unknown, I tried to find a form and name for the vision that seven boys had, ranging from a medical student to a plumber, all combat soldiers at the gates of Leningrad. His reply was more reasonable than my examples: If I thought they were idiots…”

“This would be fixed by a parabellum, which I think no ummite will resist…”
“Possibly my news (about Flying Saucers) are not abundant, but you have to realize that here I am more alone than a castaway…


Close encounter at the Meteorological Observatory of A Coruña — The man who discovered UFOs.


The birth

Incredible coincidences — The son of O Xastre — The little adventurers of Juana de Vega

The Blue Division

The motorist without fear — A secret Nazi weapon against Pushkin — Juana de Vega’s divisionalists held in Zalaeta.

The post war
Secret Nazi weapons over A Coruña? — When the Flying Saucers were not extraterrestrial –1950: The year zero — AKA Óscar Rebre or the fear of the pioneer — Science-fiction cinema arrives in Galicia — Kindelán said yes… and Einstein too — The first books on Flying Saucers –The day the extraterrestrial hypothesis settled in the collective imagination.

The wise Galician

Rey Brea & Antonio Ribera: chronicle of a relationship — Not even an error is admissible — The wise Galician at the University of Compostela — The Flying Saucers, which never were, in the Bible — The Flying Saucers arrive on Spanish television — Of nationalisms Galicians and Catalans –And then UMMO arrived — David Vincent and Los Invasores — UMMO always comes back — The Villegas case: a Flying Saucer in the Civil War — Galapagar 69: The first meeting of investigators.

The prodigious decade

The (im)perfect case — The third sighting — Rey Brea and Jordán Peña face to face — The CEI/Eridani meeting… and the M.E.O. — Of Celtic forts and the business of UFOs — UFOs: Danger of death — The first death of the wise Galician

The second death of Óscar Rey Brea

Rey Brea responds to Antonio Ribera — Rey Brea was right — The second death of the wise Galician -


The skeptical believer
A Galician Jules Verne

Chapter: Freezing. Unpublished novel.
Unpublished Years 1940

There are “Flying Saucers” but there is also a collective “psychosis”. El Ideal Gallego. 1950

The Flying Saucers Are they carrying men or Martians? El Ideal Gallego, 1950

The existence of Atlantis. Pueblo. 1952

Next June we will know if the Martians exist. Pueblo, 1954

The Flying Saucers: Speculations on the Likelihood of Such Phenomena. La Voz de Galicia, 1954

The possibility that the Flying Saucers are extraterrestrial devices is insisted on. El Ideal Gallego, 1956

A “hallucinated” answers. Pueblo Gallego, 1962

The absolute speed of the Earth in the universe, within our grasp. November 1962

Mars has the enigma of it, but that it harbors sentient beings may be more than a fantasy. El Ideal Gallego, 1963

Competition… Leo Tolstoy-Washington Irving? Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1966

An important facet of the atmosphere. BAME. State Meteorological Agency Bulletin, 1967

Relativism is only of the mind. Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics. May, 1968

Report on a luminous phenomenon observed over La Coruña on the night of May 21, 1969. Unpublished, 1969

Extraterrestrial life: Some planet may be inhabited.
Algo, 1969

Something about the photographs of the supposed UFO of San José de Valderas. Stendek, 1972

About the expansion of the universe. Karma 7,1973

Fake UFO in Galicia. Stendek, 1973

In search of the true date of Piri-Reis’s death. Karma 7, 1975

Màrius Lleget has no idea about the plasma phenomenon. Karma 7, 1976


Letter to Oscar Rey Brea


Letter from Óscar Rey Brea to Antonio Ribera i Jordá, president of the C.E.I. Center for Interplanetary Studies of Barcelona
Enrique Campos (ADIASA) Beginning of contact with the ufologist Oscar Rey Brea. E.O.C File
Letter from Oscar Rey Brea to Enrique Campos. E.O.C File
Letter from Oscar Rey Brea to Enrique Campos. E.O.C File
Letter from Oscar Rey Brea to Enrique Campos. E.O.C File


In number 02 of STENDEK, corresponding to September 1970, on page 17, Antoni Ribera commented:
«It is very curious what happens with this case [of San José de Valderas], studied in depth by me and especially by my dear friend and collaborator Rafael Farriols: it arouses extraordinary interest everywhere (in France (1), in England (2), in Mexico, even in Italy (3) and the United States), but in Spain he is regarded with indifference, if not with caution». And later he adds: «According to D. Francisco Almor, Vice President of the Agrupació Fotogràfica de Catalunya», the object, whatever it is, measures at least 10 meters. in diameter» (4).
I was not able to grasp the meaning of what was first manifested: it can mean so much.
mean supposing credulity in foreign ufologists as incredulity in the Spaniards. Or again, an inventive custom among us Celtiberians, which is still a cliché, giving more value to the opinion of a John or an Iván than to that of a Paco or an Anton.
As for the size of the alleged UFO, I would be grateful if Mr. Almor could explain to us the technique used to determine it.
After the above, and since I am one of the, let’s call ourselves, Spanish ufologists who do not “look with indifference, if not with caution”, but affirm that such photographs are a gross trick, let me try to present my points point of view on the matter and try to demonstrate on what basis my affirmation.

And for this we will use three techniques: photographic, topographical and meteorological.
I know that some of you will wonder why, until today, I had not come out against these demonstrations by Antonio Ribera. Very simple.
I am a student of the UFO problem or whatever you want to call it, which is not linked to any group; that what I do is to satisfy my own curiosity and, therefore, it was indifferent to me whether what the famous “Perfect Case” contained was believed or not. But the ummita infundio, which has taken so much preponderance, is ridiculing the UFO problem, helped by many other things that are said and written, and I believe that it is not lawful for me to allow it to prosper even more. And «A Perfect Case» is so closely linked to it, even when believing that the main author of the book is an unconscious ally of it, that is why today I come out against those sentences by Ribera, with the sole intention of discrediting something that plan so long prepared, not by any quidan, not even by a small group. You have to be involved in itan extensive organization, if you consider the existence of the strange nickel tubes and polyvinyl fluoride strips [commercially, Tedlar], with the anagram ma ummita, manufactured by the house of Dupont de Nemours in the USA. Any quidan, or a small group, could easily acquire them. And accepting them as such would be the same as imagining that the extra-terrestrials are engaged in an ugly «industrial espionage», since, if I remember correctly, I believe that it is intended to demonstrate that these ummites come from the star Wolf 424.
I don’t know what could be the reason for so much work, even though I suppose that, rather than ridiculing the problem, which is what has been achieved, the proposed reason was that we would move our eyes away from the UFO problem to the point that we would not not even worth considering.
Pretending to demonstrate the series of inconsistencies contained in the book «A Perfect Case» would be very extensive (neither do I have time for it, nor does this magazine have space). Let us emphasize, however: the strange parallelism between the research carried out carried out by Jordán Peña and the alleged Antonio Pardo; the long series of unknown witnesses, anonymity that does not occur in the case of Aluche, whom I believe to be real and who has served as a pattern for the staging of San José de Valderas; the previous announcement of the visit, made by Sesma, whom I suppose has already been named «honorary extra-terrestrial», given that his telepathic and epistolary communications with Them go back to 1956; etc etc.
It is for this reason, due to the lack of space and time, that I will only limit myself to showing the falsity of the photographs that are claimed to have been taken in San José de Valderas in the afternoon, at 8:30 p.m., on the day June 1, 1967. With just this, the entire book collapses under its own weight.
In the photographs there are several things that caught my attention from the first moment:
1. The Castle converted into a College; six to ten families and dating couples at the observation site; one of the incognito photographers photographing his girlfriend when “he saw the object appear in the background”. And, despite all this, and the fact that the line of posts that encloses the farm is not more than eight meters from the camera lenses, not a single person can be seen in the surroundings.
2. That being photograph Y-2 a backlight, since even the nearby poles, painted white, denote it, with the Sun at that time and day 3rd on the horizon, how can the object appear so white? and with its anagram as clear as in photograph Y-4?
It is possible that I can be answered that this shows that the supposed UFO gave off its own light. Let’s face it, but then…
3. Two photographers known to be inexperienced; with a shortage of light; the object in translation, although it was slow; haloed; Antonio Pardo hastily, since he even forgot to remove the lens cover at first, recognizing at the same time, and this is the most interesting thing, that «<the rest, due to diaphragming too much, have come out underexposed» [p. 92]; with cloudy sky. So, how is it possible that both amateur photographers, forced to use exposures no higher than 1/100 or 1/50, depending on the DIN degrees of the film, could achieve photographs with the aforementioned object so perfectly static and cropped , without the slightest blurring in its limbo, because let’s remember that to natural light we must add the excess light that springs from the object?
4. Bad aim or an exaggerated aesthetic taste for such a moment. Which of these reasons was what made the two photographers agree to marginalize the artifact, which should be their main preference, to such an extent that, in some of the photographs, it almost goes out of the field of vision of the camera lens?
5. In A Perfect Case» it is recognized that all the photographs were taken from an approximate height, in relation to ground level, of 1.15 meters [p. 174, point b], an issue that is supported by the almost perfect horizontality of the upper face of the fence posts of the property. Why did they both kneel? And this circumstance is not mentioned by Antonio Pardo in his letter to Màrius Lleget [pp. 84–91]… Any suspicious person would have assumed the use of a tripod.
Naturally, everything exposed, even when highly suspicious, proves nothing by itself.
That is why we are going to carefully study photographs X-2 and Y-1 above all, and less extensively Y-3 and Y-4. (For those who have not read the book “A Perfect Case”, I would like to point out that the series of photographs X was obtained by one photographer and the series Y by another. Both unknown, even though one of them calls himself Antonio Pardo. Incognito al I don’t see the reason.)
It is very unlikely that a photographer, with the camera in hand, without a tripod, will achieve two photographs of the same landscape in which the objects in the foreground, near, coincide with the same points in a distant plane: observe the photographs Y -3 and Y-4. But what is impossible, if both photographers do not agree in advance, is that this same phenomenon occurs, as it does, in the X-2 and Y-1.
Of course, here the distances do not coincide, as in the case of the Y-3 and Y-4 (appreciable with a millimeter ruler), since Y-1 is more enlarged than X-2, but the measurements are proportional. And if this is impossible, much more so is the UFO “agreeing with them.”
This last statement of mine may cause surprise, but it will be greater if the reader takes the trouble to draw two lines, from the extreme right of the UFO to the top of the Castle tower and to the post that is under the tree in X-2 in Y-1. You will get exactly the same angle!
It could be objected that the two photographs were taken at the same moment and with the two photographers online, one further away than the other and therefore the difference in size of all the objects captured in the photographs. But forgive me if I do not accept this possibility as valid. And here comes the topography.
Apart from the fact that the photographer closest to the supposed UFO would have to appear in the photograph of the one furthest away, the angles in relation to the objective (say, for example, the posts), they would have to open in a greater proportion than those located in the background (as an example or base, of the elements located in the foreground between the Castle and the distant trees), which is not It happens since, as I said before, the measures are proportional. And much less so would the aforementioned coincidence of the angle formed from the extreme right of the UFO in relation to the top of the Castle tower and the post on the right.
This shows that the photographs were taken from the same point! And this brings up another question.
The authors of the book “A Perfect Case >> acknowledge that they had the original negatives in their possession. It is absurd to think, then, that by printing them to insert them in the book, they would have enlarged the photographs of the Y series more than those of the X series.
It is fair to assume then that this characteristic is contained in the aforementioned negatives and, therefore, if the photographs were obtained from the same point, it is not possible to think anything other than negatives Y or X are a reproduction… And this by itself already constitutes
a fraud!
But let’s go to another point.
We know the dimensions of several of the objects in the photographs: the poles are 1 meter high and 7 meters apart from each other; the diameter of the UFO is 10 meters [according to Almor and 13.2 meters. according to the authors on p. 177] and 10 and 11 meters is the distance that separates points A and B (points from where the photographs were taken) from the line of posts that encloses the farm.
A series of photographs obtained by me, reproducing a line of stakes of the same height and spacing as the originals, allowed me to know that the distance from point A to the right post of photographs X-2 and Y-1, Y-2 was 14'50 meters, and 14 meters from point B to the left post of Y-3 and Y4.
With this background and a simple trigonometric calculation, we will find that in all the photographs obtained from the
point A [series X] the UFO is at 108 meters, and those obtained from point B [series Y] the UFO is at 96 meters.
You have to be very foreign» so as not to suppose that this has a trick.
And now let’s study the question from the meteorological point of view, which is my specialty since this is my profession.
On the day and time these photographs are said to have been taken, the sky over San José de Valderas was partially covered by a 6/8 layer of altocumulus clouds.
Even though in the photographs that are inserted it is hardly noticeable since they are the product of a long series of reproductions, in the originals of the book it can be easily noticed that on the horizon, behind the Castle, on X-1, there appears a small clear sector ; in X-2 and in Y-1, covered; and in Y-2, this time, there is a very wide band perfectly clear of clouds.
This game, in the very short space of time that the taking of these four photographs had to last, it is materially Impossible to occur in this class of clouds, except in the case of fog or low stratus, non-existent on this day.
Thinking in “Spanish”, there is no doubt that everything exposed certifies that all the photographs were obtained with the same machine; by the same photographer; with a tripod and sufficiently spaced one from the other to prepare that series of poses typical of a vedette, even when with the insistent effort to show us her happy anagram would he have forgotten to show us the other side, or would he have worn it out?
There are a thousand and one formulas to achieve the effect that was achieved in the photographs of “A Perfect Case”, and without necessarily the alleged UFO having the dimensions attributed to it.
A very clean glass or other transparent material, rollable and that today is sold by the meter, with the drawing of the supposed UFO adhered to it and using a polarization filter to avoid reflections; a small model, no larger than half a meter and located at a safe distance, suspended from a fine nylon thread; superimposition of two negatives to positive them and achieve a new negative, etc., etc.

Óscar Rey, from Coruña, the first ufologist in the world
He fought with the Blue Division on the Russian front where he spotted a strange object in the sky over Pushkin in 1943.
Today there is no doubt
No objective witness to the sighting was found. As the investigator Manuel Carballal points out, all those questioned refer to other alleged witnesses or to the book by Ribera and Farriols, or even to the next day’s newspaper, without having seen anything themselves. All the testimonies and documents were actually the work of José Luis Jordan Péna, who had also starred in the pseudo Aluche landing (he had even spread radioactive dust).
manuel carballal
In 1996, he explained the details of his mystification to Manuel Carballal, explaining that while his friend Vicente Ortuño was holding the medium, he had intentionally taken the photos with fast film and had developed them The reconstitution to obtain a strong granulation to make the suspension cable disappear
Since not all the photos turned out well (sometimes we saw the hands of his friend), he had to cut the film to select the best shots.
As for the mysterious tubes, they were thermometer cases, in which he had placed Tedlar tapes, a polyvinyl fluoride manufactured by Dupont de Nemours, and which a NASA engineer in Spain had obtained for him at the time.
Manuel Carballal, following his instructions, made a model of the same type, and photographed it in the same conditions in front of the castle of San José (8)
We had personally taken this type of photo in 1986, based on Claude Poher’s analysis, as you can see below. It’s almost too easy…

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Galán Vázquez

Painter, Graphic Designer, Seville & Barcelona Spain, Member of the Center for Interplanetary Studies of Barcelona. Research Correspondent at UFO-SVERIGE